Inequalities in mining and oil regions of andean countries

Javier Arellano-Yanguas


The difficulties to translate mineral richness into tangible development outcomes have been widely covered in academic research during the last decade. However, only very recently the issue of inequalities in the context of extraction has received attention. This paper contributes to emerging literature by proposing and applying an analytical framework in which inequalities catalyzed by mining and oil operations are reviewed across three thematic axes (political, socio-economic, and environmental) and three levels (between institutional actors, between territories, and between groups within a given territory). This systematic analysis uncovers the way in which the costs and benefits of extraction affect institutions, territories, and social groups differently. The second part of the paper applies the framework to a mining operation in Peru (Antamina) and an oilfield in Colombia (Rubiales). The empirical analysis reveals a set of contextual factors that influence the generation of inequalities.


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